Developer Agreement & Policy

New! We revised our Developer Agreement and Developer Policy, effective as of May 18, 2015. Please read the updated Developer Agreement and Developer Policy. By continuing to access or use our content or services after May 18, 2015, you agree to the revisions.

Twitter Developer Agreement

Effective: October 22, 2014.

This Twitter Developer Agreement (“Agreement”) is made between you (either an individual or an entity, referred to herein as “you”) and Twitter, Inc., on behalf of itself and its worldwide affiliates (collectively, “Twitter”) and governs your access to and use of the Licensed Material (as defined below).

PLEASE READ THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT CAREFULLY, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY LINKED TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPEARING OR REFERENCED BELOW, WHICH ARE HEREBY MADE PART OF THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT. BY USING THE LICENSED MATERIAL, YOU ARE AGREEING THAT YOU HAVE READ, AND THAT YOU AGREE TO COMPLY WITH AND TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT AND ALL APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN THEIR ENTIRETY WITHOUT LIMITATION OR QUALIFICATION. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THIS AGREEMENT, THEN YOU MAY NOT ACCESS OR OTHERWISE USE THE LICENSED MATERIAL. THIS AGREEMENT IS EFFECTIVE AS OF THE FIRST DATE THAT YOU USE THE LICENSED MATERIAL (“EFFECTIVE DATE”).

IF YOU ARE AN INDIVIDUAL REPRESENTING AN ENTITY, YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE THE APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY TO ACCEPT THIS AGREEMENT ON BEHALF OF SUCH ENTITY. YOU MAY NOT USE THE LICENSED MATERIAL AND MAY NOT ACCEPT THIS AGREEMENT IF YOU ARE NOT OF LEGAL AGE TO FORM A BINDING CONTRACT WITH TWITTER, OR YOU ARE BARRED FROM USING OR RECEIVING THE LICENSED MATERIAL UNDER APPLICABLE LAW.

I. Twitter API and Twitter Content

A. Definitions

  1. Content ‒ Tweets, Tweet IDs, Twitter end user profile information, and any other data and information made available to you through the Twitter API or by any other means authorized by Twitter, and any copies and derivative works thereof.
  2. Developer Site ‒ Twitter’s developer site located at https://dev.twitter.com.
  3. End Users ‒ Users of your Services, who are bound to enforceable service terms with you.
  4. Licensed Material ‒ A collective term for the Twitter API and Content.
  5. Services ‒ Your websites, applications and other offerings that display Content or otherwise use the Licensed Material.
  6. Tweet ID ‒ A unique identification number generated for each Tweet.
  7. Tweet ‒ a public posting with a text body of no more than 140 characters made by any end user of the Twitter Service.
  8. Twitter API ‒ The Twitter Application Programming Interface (“API”) and the related documentation, data, code, and other materials provided by Twitter with the API, as updated from time to time, including without limitation through the Developer Site.
  9. Twitter Marks ‒ The Twitter name, or logos that Twitter makes available to you, including via the Developer Site.
  10. Twitter Services ‒ Twitter’s offerings, including without limitation, those offered via http://twitter.com and Twitter’s mobile application.

B. License from Twitter. Subject to the terms and conditions in this Agreement (as a condition to the grant below), Twitter hereby grants you and you accept a non-exclusive, royalty free, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, revocable license during the Term solely to:

  1. Use the Twitter API to develop and implement your Services;
  2. Copy a reasonable amount of and display the Content on and through your Services to End Users, as permitted by this Agreement;
  3. Modify Content only to format it for display on your Services; and
  4. Use and display Twitter Marks, solely to attribute Twitter’s offerings as the source of the Content, as set forth herein.

C. Incorporated Terms. Your use of the Licensed Material is further subject to and governed by the following terms and conditions:

  1. the Twitter Developer Policy located at https://dev.twitter.com/overview/terms/policy (“Developer Policy”);
  2. as it relates to your use and storage of any Content, the Twitter Privacy Policy located at http://twitter.com/privacy (“Privacy Policy”);
  3. as it relates to your display of any of the Content, the Display Requirements located at https://dev.twitter.com/terms/display-requirements (“Display Requirements”); and
  4. as it relates to your use and display of the Twitter Marks, the Twitter Brand Assets and Guidelines located at https://twitter.com/logo (“Brand Guidelines”).

The Developer Policy, Privacy Policy, Display Requirements, and Brand Guidelines are collectively referred to herein as the “Developer Terms”. You agree to the Developer Terms, which are hereby incorporated by reference and are available in hardcopy upon request to Twitter. In the event of a conflict between the Developer Terms and this Agreement, this Agreement shall control. None of the Developer Terms expand or extend the license to the Twitter API, Content or Twitter Marks granted in this Agreement.

II. Restrictions on Use of Licensed Materials

  1. Reverse Engineering and other Limitations. You will not or attempt to (and will not allow others to) 1) reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or translate the Twitter API, or otherwise attempt to derive source code, trade secrets or know-how in or underlying any Twitter API or any portion thereof; 2) interfere with, modify, disrupt or disable features or functionality of the Twitter API, including without limitation any such mechanism used to restrict or control the functionality, or defeat, avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or otherwise circumvent any software protection or monitoring mechanisms of the Twitter API; 3) sell, rent, lease, sublicense, distribute, redistribute, syndicate, create derivative works of, assign or otherwise transfer or provide access to, in whole or in part, the Licensed Material to any third party except as expressly permitted herein; 4) provide use of the Twitter API on a service bureau, rental or managed services basis or permit other individuals or entities to create links to the Twitter API or “frame” or “mirror” the Twitter API on any other server, or wireless or Internet-based device, or otherwise make available to a third party, any token, key, password or other login credentials to the Twitter API; or 5) use the Licensed Material for any illegal, unauthorized or other improper purposes.
  2. Rate Limits. You will not attempt to exceed or circumvent limitations on access, calls and use of the Twitter API (“Rate Limits”), or otherwise use the Twitter API in a manner that exceeds reasonable request volume, constitutes excessive or abusive usage, or otherwise fails to comply or is inconsistent with any part of this Agreement. If you exceed or Twitter reasonably believes that you have attempted to circumvent Rate Limits, controls to limit use of the Twitter APIs or the terms and conditions of this Agreement, then your ability to use the Licensed Materials may be temporarily suspended or permanently blocked. Twitter may monitor your use of the Twitter API to improve the Twitter Service and to ensure your compliance with this Agreement.
  3. Geographic Data. You will not (and will not allow others to) aggregate, cache, or store location data and other geographic information contained in the Content, except in conjunction with a Tweet to which it is attached. You may only use such location data and geographic information to identify the location tagged by the Tweet. Any use of location data or geographic information on a standalone basis or beyond the license granted herein is a breach of this Agreement.
  4. Use of Twitter Marks. The Twitter Marks may not be included in or as part of your registered corporate name, any of your logos, or any of your service or product names. Moreover, you may not create any derivative works of the Twitter Marks or use the Twitter Marks in a manner that creates or reasonably implies an inaccurate sense of endorsement, sponsorship, or association with Twitter. You will not otherwise use business names and/or logos in a manner that can mislead, confuse, or deceive users of your Services. All use of the Twitter Marks and all goodwill arising out of such use, will inure to Twitter’s benefit. You shall not use the Twitter Marks except as expressly authorized herein without Twitter’s prior consent. You will not remove or alter any proprietary notices or Twitter Marks on the Licensed Material.

III. Updates

You acknowledge that Twitter may update or modify the Twitter APIs from time to time, and at its sole discretion (in each instance, an “Update”). You are required to implement and use the most current version of the Twitter API and to make any changes to your Services that are required as a result of such Update, at your sole cost and expense. Updates may adversely affect the manner in which your Services access or communicate with the Twitter API or display Content. Your continued access or use of the Twitter APIs following the sixty (60) day period referenced above will constitute binding acceptance of the Update.

IV. Ownership and Feedback

  1. Ownership. The Licensed Materials are licensed, not sold, and Twitter retains and reserves all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement. You expressly acknowledge that Twitter, its licensors and its end users retain all worldwide right, title and interest in and to the Licensed Material and Content, including all rights in patents, trademarks, trade names, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how, data (including all applications therefor), and all proprietary rights under the laws of the United States, any other jurisdiction or any treaty (“IP Rights”). You agree not to do anything inconsistent with such ownership, including without limitation, challenging Twitter’s ownership of the Twitter Marks, challenging the validity of the licenses granted herein, or otherwise copying or exploiting the Twitter Marks during or after the termination of this Agreement, except as specifically authorized herein. If you acquire any rights in the Twitter Marks or any confusingly similar marks, by operation of law or otherwise, you will, at no expense to Twitter, immediately assign such rights to Twitter.
  2. Feedback. You may provide Twitter with comments concerning the Licensed Material, Services or your evaluation and use thereof (collectively, “Feedback”). You hereby grant Twitter all rights, title and ownership of such Feedback (including all intellectual property rights therein), and Twitter may use the Feedback for any and all commercial and non-commercial purposes with no obligation of any kind to you.

V. Termination

Twitter may immediately terminate or suspend this Agreement, any rights granted herein, and/or your license to the Licensed Materials, at its sole discretion at any time, for any reason by providing notice to you. You may terminate this Agreement at any time by ceasing your access to the Twitter API and use of all Twitter Content. Upon termination of this Agreement, all licenses granted herein immediately expire and you must cease use of all Licensed Materials. Neither party will be liable to the other for any damages resulting solely from termination of this Agreement as permitted under this Agreement. Sections II, IV, V, VI and VII of this Agreement will survive the termination of this Agreement.

VI. Confidentiality

You may be given access to certain non-public information, software, and specifications relating to the Licensed Material (“Confidential Information”), which is confidential and proprietary to Twitter. You may use this Confidential Information only as necessary in exercising your rights granted in this Agreement. You may not disclose any of this Confidential Information to any third party without Twitter’s prior written consent. You agree that you will protect this Confidential Information from unauthorized use, access, or disclosure in the same manner that you would use to protect your own confidential and proprietary information of a similar nature and in no event with less than a reasonable degree of care.

VII. Other Important Terms

  1. User Protection. You will not knowingly: 1) allow or assist any government entities, law enforcement, or other organizations to conduct surveillance on Content or obtain information on Twitter’s users or their Tweets that would require a subpoena, court order, or other valid legal process, or that would otherwise have the potential to be inconsistent with our users’ reasonable expectations of privacy; and 2) display, distribute or otherwise make available Content to any person or entity that you reasonably believe will use such data to violate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (located at http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/), including without limitation Articles 12, 18, or 19. Any law enforcement personnel seeking information about Twitter users will be referred to Twitter’s Guidelines for Law Enforcement located at https://t.co/le. You will not conduct and your Services will not provide analyses or research that isolates a small group of individuals or any single individual for any unlawful or discriminatory purposes. Exemptions to these restrictions may be requested for exigent circumstances and are subject to prior written approval from Twitter.
  2. Government Use. The Twitter API and Twitter Content are “commercial items” as that term is defined at 48 C.F.R. 2.101, consisting of “commercial computer software” and “commercial computer software documentation” as such terms are used in 48 C.F.R. 12.212. Any use, modification, derivative, reproduction, release, performance, display, disclosure or distribution of the Twitter API or Twitter Content by any government entity is prohibited, except as expressly permitted by the terms of this Agreement. Additionally, any use by U.S. government entities must be in accordance with 48 C.F.R. 12.212 and 48 C.F.R. 227.7202-1 through 227.7202-4. If you use the Twitter API or Twitter Content in your official capacity as an employee or representative of a U.S., state or local government entity and you are legally unable to accept the indemnity, jurisdiction, venue or other clauses herein, then those clauses do not apply to such entity, but only to the extent as required by applicable law. Contractor/manufacturer is Twitter, Inc., 1355 Market Street, Suite 900, San Francisco, California 94103.
  3. Compliance with Laws; Export and Import. Each party will comply with all applicable foreign, federal, state, and local laws, rules and regulations. The Licensed Material is subject to U.S. export laws and may be subject to import and use laws of the country where it is delivered or used. You agree to abide by these laws. Under these laws, the Licensed Material may not be sold, leased, downloaded, moved, exported, re-exported, or transferred across borders without a license, or approval from the relevant government authority, to any country or to any foreign national restricted by these laws, including countries embargoed by the U.S. Government (currently Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Northern Sudan and Syria); or to any restricted or denied end-user including, but not limited to, any person or entity prohibited by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control; or for any restricted end-use. You will maintain throughout the Term all rights and licenses that are required with respect to your Services.
  4. Warranty Disclaimer. THE LICENSED MATERIAL IS PROVIDED TO YOU “AS IS”, “WHERE IS”, WITH ALL FAULTS AND EACH PARTY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY, OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NONINFRINGMENT, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND ANY WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS ARISING OUT OF THIS AGREEMENT, COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE. TWITTER DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE LICENSED MATERIAL OR ANY OTHER TWITTER PRODUCT OR SERVICE PROVIDED HEREUNDER WILL MEET ANY OF YOUR REQUIREMENTS OR THAT USE OF SUCH LICENSED MATERIAL OR OTHER PRODUCTS OR SERVICES WILL BE ERROR-FREE, UNINTERRUPTED, VIRUS-FREE OR SECURE. THIS DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY MAY NOT BE VALID IN SOME JURISDICTIONS AND YOU MAY HAVE WARRANTY RIGHTS UNDER LAW WHICH MAY NOT BE WAIVED OR DISCLAIMED. ANY SUCH WARRANTY EXTENDS ONLY FOR THIRTY (30) DAYS FROM THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF THIS AGREEMENT (UNLESS SUCH LAW PROVIDES OTHERWISE).
  5. Indemnification. You shall defend Twitter against any and all actions, demands, claims and suits (including without limitation product liability claims), and indemnify and hold Twitter harmless from any and all liabilities, damages and costs (including without limitation reasonable attorneys’ fees) to the extent arising out of: (i) your use of the Licensed Material in any manner that is inconsistent with this Agreement; or (ii) the performance, promotion, sale or distribution of your Services. In the event Twitter seeks indemnification or defense from you under this provision, Twitter will promptly notify you in writing of the claim(s) brought against Twitter for which it seeks indemnification or defense. Twitter reserves the right, at its option and sole discretion, to assume full control of the defense of claims with legal counsel of its choice. You may not enter into any third party agreement, which would, in any manner whatsoever, affect the rights of Twitter, constitute an admission of fault by Twitter or bind Twitter in any manner, without the prior written consent of Twitter. In the event Twitter assumes control of the defense of such claim, Twitter shall not settle any such claim requiring payment from you without your prior written approval.
  6. Limitation of Liability. IN NO EVENT WILL TWITTER BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY END USERS FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY, PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY LOSS OF OR DAMAGE TO USE, DATA, BUSINESS, GOODWILL OR PROFITS ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT. IN ANY CASE, TWITTER’S AGGREGATE LIABILITY FOR ANY AND ALL CLAIMS UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT EXCEED $50.00 USD. THE FOREGOING LIMITATIONS, EXCLUSIONS AND DISCLAIMERS SHALL APPLY REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH LIABILITY ARISES FROM ANY CLAIM BASED UPON CONTRACT, WARRANTY, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, AND WHETHER OR NOT THE PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSS OR DAMAGE. INSOFAR AS APPLICABLE LAW PROHIBITS ANY LIMITATION ON LIABILITY HEREIN, THE PARTIES AGREE THAT SUCH LIMITATION WILL BE AUTOMATICALLY MODIFIED, BUT ONLY TO THE EXTENT SO AS TO MAKE THE LIMITATION COMPLIANT WITH APPLICABLE LAW. THE PARTIES AGREE THAT THE LIMITATIONS ON LIABILITIES SET FORTH HEREIN ARE AGREED ALLOCATIONS OF RISK AND SUCH LIMITATIONS WILL APPLY NOTWITHSTANDING THE FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY.
  7. Updates. Twitter may update or modify this Agreement, Developer Terms, and other terms and conditions, from time to time at its sole discretion by posting the changes on this site or by otherwise notifying you (such notice may be via email). You acknowledge that these updates and modifications may adversely affect how your Service accesses or communicates with the Twitter API. If any change is unacceptable to you, your only recourse is to cease all use of the Licensed Material. Your continued access or use of the Licensed Material will constitute binding acceptance of the such updates and modifications.
  8. Miscellaneous. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement among the parties with respect to the subject matter and supersedes and merges all prior proposals, understandings and contemporaneous communications. Any modification to this Agreement must be in a writing signed by both you and Twitter. You may not assign any of the rights or obligations granted hereunder, in whole or in part, whether voluntarily or by operation of law, contract, merger (whether you are the surviving or disappearing entity), stock or asset sale, consolidation, dissolution, through government action or otherwise, except with the prior written consent of Twitter. Any attempted assignment in violation of this paragraph is null and void, and Twitter may terminate this Agreement. This Agreement does not create or imply any partnership, agency or joint venture. This Agreement will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of California, without regard to or application of conflicts of law rules or principles. All claims arising out of or relating to this Agreement will be brought exclusively in the federal or state courts of San Francisco County, California, USA, and you consent to personal jurisdiction in those courts. Despite the foregoing, you agree that money damages would be an inadequate remedy for Twitter in the event of a breach or threatened breach of a provision of this Agreement protecting Twitter’s intellectual property or Confidential Information, and that in the event of such a breach or threat, Twitter, in addition to any other remedies to which it is entitled, is entitled to such preliminary or injunctive relief (including an order prohibiting Company from taking actions in breach of such provisions), without the need for posting bond, and specific performance as may be appropriate. The parties agree that neither the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, nor the Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act (UCITA) shall apply to this Agreement, regardless of the states in which the parties do business or are incorporated. No waiver by Twitter of any covenant or right under this Agreement will be effective unless memorialized in a writing duly authorized by Twitter. If any part of this Agreement is determined to be invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, that provision will be enforced to the maximum extent permissible and the remaining provisions of this Agreement will remain in full force and effect.

Twitter Developer Policy

Effective: October 22, 2014.

In addition to the Developer Agreement, this Developer Policy (“Policy”) provides rules and guidelines for developers who interact with Twitter’s ecosystem of applications, services and content. Policy violations are also considered violations of the Developer Agreement. Take a look at the Definitions for the meaning of capitalized words used in this Policy.  These policies may be changed from time to time without notice. Please check here for any updates. Refer to our archive for a list of past updates.

  1. Guiding Principles
    1. A Few Key Points
    2. Maintain the Integrity of Twitter’s Products
    3. Respect Users’ Control and Privacy
    4. Clearly Identify Your Service
    5. Keep Twitter Spam Free
    6. Be a Good Partner to Twitter
    7. Avoid Replicating the Core Twitter Experience
    8. Engage in Appropriate Commercial Use
  2. Rules for Specific Twitter Products or Features
    1. Twitter Login
    2. Social Updates
    3. Twitter Identity
    4. Twitter Cards
    5. Twitter for Websites
    6. Definitions

    I. Guiding Principles

    1. A Few Key Points

    1. Keep any API keys or other access credentials private and use only as permitted.
    2. Respect our requirements on how to display and interact with users’ content.
    3. If your application will need more than 1 million user tokens, you must contact us about your Twitter API access, as you may be subject to additional terms.
    4. Twitter may monitor your use of the Twitter API to improve the Twitter Service, examine commercial use and ensure your compliance with this Policy.
    5. Remember, Twitter may suspend or revoke access to the Twitter API if we believe you are in violation of this Policy. Do not apply for or register additional API tokens if Twitter has suspended your account.  Instead, contact us.

    2. Maintain the Integrity of Twitter’s Products

    1. Follow the Display Requirements and Twitter Rules. If your Service facilitates or induces users to violate the Twitter Rules, you must figure out how to prevent the abuse or Twitter may suspend or terminate your access to the Twitter API. We’ve provided guidance in our Abuse Prevention and Security help page.
    2. If your Service submits content to Twitter that includes a Twitter username, submit the correct Twitter username (“@username”).
    3. Promptly respond to Content changes reported through the Twitter API, such as deletions or the public/protected status of Tweets.
    4. Do not modify, translate or delete a portion of the Content.
    5. Maintain the features and functionality of Content and Twitter API. Do not interfere with, intercept, disrupt, filter, or disable any features of Twitter or the Twitter API, including the Content of embedded Tweets and embedded timelines.
    6. Only surface Twitter activity as it surfaced on Twitter. For example, your Service should execute the unfavorite and delete actions by removing all relevant Content, not by publicly displaying to other users that the Tweet is no longer favorited or has been deleted.
    7. Do not exceed or circumvent limitations on access, calls, sharing, privacy settings, or use permitted in this Policy, or as otherwise set forth on the Developer Site, or communicated to you by Twitter.
    8. Do not remove or alter any proprietary notices or marks on Content or the Twitter API.
    9. Do not (and do not allow others to) aggregate, cache, or store location data and other geographic information contained in the Content, except as part of a Tweet. Any use of location data or geographic information on a standalone basis is prohibited.

    3. Respect Users’ Control and Privacy

    1. Get the user’s express consent before you do any of the following:
      1. Take any actions on a user’s behalf, including posting Content, following/unfollowing other users, modifying profile information, or adding hashtags or other data to the user’s Tweets. A user authenticating through your Service does not constitute user consent.
      2. Republish Content accessed by means other than via the Twitter API or Twitter other tools.
      3. Use a user’s Content to promote a commercial product or service, either on a commercial durable good or as part of an advertisement.
      4. Store non-public Content such as direct messages or other private or confidential information.
      5. Share or publish protected Content, private or confidential information.
    2. Take all reasonable efforts to do the following, provided that when requested by Twitter, you must promptly take such actions:
      1. Delete Content that Twitter reports as deleted or expired;
      2. Change treatment of Content that Twitter reports is subject to changed sharing options (e.g., become protected); and
      3. Modify Content that Twitter reports has been modified.
    3. If your Service allows users to post Content to Twitter, then, before publishing, show the user exactly what will be published, including whether any geotags will be added to the Content.
    4. If your Service allows users to post Content to your Service and Twitter, then, before publishing to the Service:
      1. Explain how you will use the Content;
      2. Obtain proper permission to use the Content; and
      3. Continue to use such Content in accordance with this Policy in connection with the Content.
    5. Display your Service’s privacy policy to users before download, installation or sign up of your application. You must comply with your privacy policy, which must clearly disclose the information you collect from users and how you use and share that information, including with Twitter.
    6. If your Service uses cookies, disclose in your privacy policy:
      1. Whether third parties collect user information on your Service and across other websites or online services;
      2. Information about user options for cookie management and whether you honor the Do Not Track setting in supporting web browsers.
    7. If your Service adds location information to users’ Tweets:
      1. Disclose when you add location information, whether as a geotag or annotations data, and whether you add a place or specific coordinates.
      2. Comply with Geo Developers Guidelines if your application allows users to Tweet with their location.
    8. Do not store Twitter passwords.

    4. Clearly Identify Your Service

    1. Make sure users understand your identity and the source and purpose of your Service. For example:
      1. Don’t use a name or logo that falsely implies you or your company is related to another business or person.
      2. Don’t use a shortened URL for your Service that attempts to mask the destination site
      3. Don’t use a URL for your Service that directs users to
        1. a site that is unrelated to your Service
        2. a site that encourages users to violate the Twitter Rules
        3. a spam or malware site.
    2. Do not replicate, frame, or mirror the Twitter website or its design.

    5. Keep Twitter Spam Free

    1. Follow the Abuse and Spam rules here.
    2. Comply with the automation rules if your Service performs automatic actions.
    3. Do not do any of the following:
      1. Mass-register applications.
      2. Create tokens/applications to sell names, prevent others from using names, or other commercial use.
      3. Use third-party content feeds to update and maintain accounts under those third parties’ names.
      4. Name squat by submitting multiple applications with the same function under different names.
      5. Publish links to malicious content.
      6. Publish pornographic or obscene images to user profile images and background images.

    6. Be a Good Partner to Twitter

    1. Follow the guidelines for using Tweets in broadcast if you display Tweets offline.
    2. If you provide Content to third parties, including downloadable datasets of Content or an API that returns Content, you will only distribute or allow download of Tweet IDs and/or User IDs.
      1. You may, however, provide export via non-automated means (e.g., download of spreadsheets or PDF files, or use of a “save as” button) of up to 50,000 public Tweets and/or User Objects per user of your Service, per day.
      2. Any Content provided to third parties via non-automated file download remains subject to this Policy.
    3. Use and display Twitter Marks solely to identify Twitter as the source of Content.
    4. Comply with Twitter Brand Assets and Guidelines.
    5. Do not do any of the following:
      1. Use a single application API key for multiple use cases or multiple application API keys for the same use case.
      2. Charge a premium above your Service’s standard data and usage rates for access to Content via SMS or USSD.
      3. Sell or receive monetary or virtual compensation for Tweet actions or the placement of Tweet actions on your Service, such as, but not limited to follow, retweet, favorite, and reply.
      4. Do not use, access or analyze the Twitter API to monitor or measure the availability, performance, functionality, usage statistics or results of Twitter’s products and services or for any other benchmarking or competitive purposes, including without limitation, monitoring or measuring:
        1. the responsiveness of Twitter websites, web pages or other online services; or
        2. aggregate Twitter user metrics such as total number of active users, accounts, user engagements or account engagements.
      5. Use Twitter Content, by itself or bundled with third party data, to target users with advertising outside of the Twitter platform, including without limitation on other advertising networks, via data brokers, or through any other advertising or monetization services.
      6. Use Twitter Marks, or Twitter Certified Products Program badges, or similar marks or names in a manner that creates a false sense of endorsement, sponsorship, or association with Twitter.
      7. Use the Twitter Verified Account badge, Verified Account status, or any other enhanced user categorization on Twitter Content other than that reported to you by Twitter through the API.

    7. Avoid Replicating the Core Twitter Experience

    1. Twitter discourages online services from replicating Twitter’s core user experience or features.
    2. The following rules apply solely to Services or applications that attempt to replicate Twitter’s core user experience:
      1. You must obtain our permission to have more than 100,000 user tokens, and you may be subject to additional terms.
      2. Use the Twitter API as provided by Twitter for functionalities in your Service that are substantially similar to a Twitter service feature and present this to your users as the default option.
      3. Display a prominent link or button in your Service that directs new users to Twitter’s sign-up functionality.
      4. Do not do the following:
        1. Pay, or offer to pay, third parties for distribution. This includes offering compensation for downloads (other than transactional fees) or other mechanisms of traffic acquisition.
        2. Arrange for your Service to be pre-installed on any device, promoted as a “zero-rated” service, or marketed as part of a specialized data plan.
        3. Use Twitter Content or other data collected from users to create or maintain a separate status update or social network database or service.

    8. Engage in Appropriate Commercial Use

    1. Advertising Around Twitter Content
      1. You may advertise around and on sites that display Tweets, but you may not place any advertisements within the Twitter timeline on your Service other than Twitter Ads.
      2. Your advertisements cannot resemble or reasonably be confused by users as a Tweet.
      3. You may advertise in close proximity to the Twitter timeline (e.g., banner ads above or below timeline), but there must be a clear separation between Twitter content and your advertisements.
    2. Compensation
      1. When Content is the primary basis of an advertising or sponsorship sale you make, you must compensate Twitter, recoupable against any fees payment to Twitter for data licensing.
      2. Twitter reserves the right to serve advertising via its APIs (“Twitter Ads”). If you decide to serve Twitter Ads once we start delivering them, we will share a portion of advertising revenue with you in accordance with the relevant terms and conditions.

    II. Rules for Specific Twitter Products or Features

    1. Twitter Login

    1. Present users with easy to find options to log into and out of Twitter, for example, via the OAuth protocol or Twitter Kit.
    2. Provide users without a Twitter account the opportunity to create a new Twitter account.
    3. Display the Connect with Twitter option at least as prominently as the most prominent of any other third party social networking sign-up or sign-in marks and branding appearing on your Service.
    4. Obtain consent before accessing users’ email addresses using Twitter login. As part of Twitter’s OAuth protocol, users may consent to share their email addresses with you. On iOS and Android, you must only request access to users’ email addresses using the Twitter-approved user interface made available via Twitter Kit and must only access email addresses of users who provide consent through that user interface.

    2. Social Updates

    1. If you allow users to create social updates from your own social service or a third party social networking, micro-blogging, or status update provider integrated into your Service (“Update”), you must display a prominent option to publish that content to Twitter.
    2. If Updates are longer than 140 characters or not text, you must display a prominent link to publish that content to Twitter and:
      1. URLs must direct users to the page where that content is displayed. You may require users to sign in to access that page, but the content must not otherwise be restricted from being viewed.
      2. URLs must not direct users to interstitial or intermediate pages.

    3. Twitter Identity

    1. Once a user has authenticated via Connect with Twitter via your Service, you must clearly display the user’s Twitter identity via your Service. Twitter identity includes visible display of the user’s avatar, Twitter user name and the Twitter bird mark.
    2. Displays of the user’s followers on your Service must clearly show that the relationship is associated with the Twitter Service.

    4. Twitter Cards

    1. Develop your Card to have the same quality experience across all platforms where Cards are displayed.
    2. If your Service provides a logged-in experience, the experience prior to a user’s login must be of equivalent quality and user value.
    3. Mark your Card as ‘true’ for sensitive media if such media can be displayed.
    4. Use HTTPS for hosting all assets within your Card.
    5. For video and audio content:
      1. Default to ‘sound off’ for videos that automatically play content.
      2. Include stop or pause controls.
    6. Do not do any of the following:
      1. Exceed or circumvent Twitter’s limitations placed on any Cards, including the Card’s intended use.
      2. Attach the App Card to a user’s Tweet, unless the user is explicitly promoting or referring to the app in the Tweet.
      3. Place third-party sponsored content within Cards without Twitter’s prior approval.
      4. Include content or actions within your Card that are not contextually relevant to the user’s Tweet text and Tweet entities, such as URLs and media.
      5. Generate active mixed content browser warnings.
      6. Attach monetary incentives or transactions (including virtual currency) to activities that occur within the Card or on Twitter from your Card.
      7. Apply for Cards access for domains you do not manage to prevent others from registering or utilizing Cards on those domains.

    5. Twitter for Websites

    1. If you expect your embedded Tweets and embedded timelines to exceed 10 million daily impressions, you must contact us about your Twitter API access, as you may be subject to additional terms.
    2. If you use TFW widgets, you must ensure that an end user is provided with clear and comprehensive information about, and consents to, the storing and accessing of cookies or other information on the end user’s device where providing such information and obtaining such consent is required by law.
    3. If you operate a Service targeted to children under 13, you must opt out of tailoring Twitter in any Twitter for Websites button, embedded Tweet, or embedded timeline on your Service by setting the opt-out parameter to be true.

    6. Definitions

    1. Content ‒ Tweets, Tweet IDs, Twitter end user profile information, and any other data and information made available to you through the Twitter API or by any other means authorized by Twitter, and any copies and derivative works thereof.
    2. Developer Site ‒ Twitter’s developer site located at https://dev.twitter.com.
    3. Tweet ‒ A public posting with a text body of no more than 140 characters made by any end user of the Twitter Service.
    4. Tweet ID ‒ A unique identification number generated for each Tweet.
    5. Twitter API ‒ The Twitter Application Programming Interface (“API”) and the related documentation, data, code, and other materials provided by Twitter with the API, as updated from time to time, including without limitation through the Developer Site.
    6. Twitter Marks ‒ The Twitter name, or logos that Twitter makes available to you, including via the Developer Site.
    7. User ID — Unique identification numbers generated for each User that do not contain any personally identifiable information such as Twitter usernames or users’ names.

    Twitter Developer Agreement

    Updated: April 17, 2015.

    Effective: May 18, 2015.

    This Twitter Developer Agreement (“Agreement”) is made between you (either an individual or an entity, referred to herein as “you”) and Twitter, Inc. and Twitter International Company (collectively, “Twitter”) and governs your access to and use of the Licensed Material (as defined below).

    PLEASE READ THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT CAREFULLY, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY LINKED TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPEARING OR REFERENCED BELOW, WHICH ARE HEREBY MADE PART OF THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT. BY USING THE LICENSED MATERIAL, YOU ARE AGREEING THAT YOU HAVE READ, AND THAT YOU AGREE TO COMPLY WITH AND TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT AND ALL APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN THEIR ENTIRETY WITHOUT LIMITATION OR QUALIFICATION. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THIS AGREEMENT, THEN YOU MAY NOT ACCESS OR OTHERWISE USE THE LICENSED MATERIAL. THIS AGREEMENT IS EFFECTIVE AS OF THE FIRST DATE THAT YOU USE THE LICENSED MATERIAL (“EFFECTIVE DATE”).

    IF YOU ARE AN INDIVIDUAL REPRESENTING AN ENTITY, YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE THE APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY TO ACCEPT THIS AGREEMENT ON BEHALF OF SUCH ENTITY. YOU MAY NOT USE THE LICENSED MATERIAL AND MAY NOT ACCEPT THIS AGREEMENT IF YOU ARE NOT OF LEGAL AGE TO FORM A BINDING CONTRACT WITH TWITTER, OR YOU ARE BARRED FROM USING OR RECEIVING THE LICENSED MATERIAL UNDER APPLICABLE LAW.

    I. Twitter API and Twitter Content

    A. Definitions

    1. Content ‒ Tweets, Tweet IDs, Twitter end user profile information, and any other data and information made available to you through the Twitter API or by any other means authorized by Twitter, and any copies and derivative works thereof.
    2. Developer Site ‒ Twitter’s developer site located at https://dev.twitter.com.
    3. End Users ‒ Users of your Services, who are bound to enforceable service terms with you.
    4. Licensed Material ‒ A collective term for the Twitter API and Content.
    5. Services ‒ Your websites, applications and other offerings that display Content or otherwise use the Licensed Material.
    6. Tweet ID ‒ A unique identification number generated for each Tweet.
    7. Tweet ‒ a public posting with a text body of no more than 140 characters made by any end user of the Twitter Service.
    8. Twitter API ‒ The Twitter Application Programming Interface (“API”) and the related documentation, data, code, and other materials provided by Twitter with the API, as updated from time to time, including without limitation through the Developer Site.
    9. Twitter Marks ‒ The Twitter name, or logos that Twitter makes available to you, including via the Developer Site.
    10. Twitter Services ‒ Twitter’s offerings, including without limitation, those offered via http://twitter.com and Twitter’s mobile application.

    B. License from Twitter. Subject to the terms and conditions in this Agreement (as a condition to the grant below), Twitter hereby grants you and you accept a non-exclusive, royalty free, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, revocable license during the Term solely to:

    1. Use the Twitter API to develop and implement your Services;
    2. Copy a reasonable amount of and display the Content on and through your Services to End Users, as permitted by this Agreement;
    3. Modify Content only to format it for display on your Services; and
    4. Use and display Twitter Marks, solely to attribute Twitter’s offerings as the source of the Content, as set forth herein.

    C. Incorporated Terms. Your use of the Licensed Material is further subject to and governed by the following terms and conditions:

    1. the Twitter Developer Policy located at https://dev.twitter.com/overview/terms/policy (“Developer Policy”);
    2. as it relates to your display of any of the Content, the Display Requirements located at https://dev.twitter.com/terms/display-requirements (“Display Requirements”); and
    3. as it relates to your use and display of the Twitter Marks, the Twitter Brand Assets and Guidelines located at https://twitter.com/logo (“Brand Guidelines”).

    The Developer Policy, Display Requirements, and Brand Guidelines are collectively referred to herein as the “Developer Terms”. You agree to the Developer Terms, which are hereby incorporated by reference and are available in hardcopy upon request to Twitter. In the event of a conflict between the Developer Terms and this Agreement, this Agreement shall control. None of the Developer Terms expand or extend the license to the Twitter API, Content or Twitter Marks granted in this Agreement.

    II. Restrictions on Use of Licensed Materials

    1. Reverse Engineering and other Limitations. You will not or attempt to (and will not allow others to) 1) reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or translate the Twitter API, or otherwise attempt to derive source code, trade secrets or know-how in or underlying any Twitter API or any portion thereof; 2) interfere with, modify, disrupt or disable features or functionality of the Twitter API, including without limitation any such mechanism used to restrict or control the functionality, or defeat, avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or otherwise circumvent any software protection or monitoring mechanisms of the Twitter API; 3) sell, rent, lease, sublicense, distribute, redistribute, syndicate, create derivative works of, assign or otherwise transfer or provide access to, in whole or in part, the Licensed Material to any third party except as expressly permitted herein; 4) provide use of the Twitter API on a service bureau, rental or managed services basis or permit other individuals or entities to create links to the Twitter API or “frame” or “mirror” the Twitter API on any other server, or wireless or Internet-based device, or otherwise make available to a third party, any token, key, password or other login credentials to the Twitter API; or 5) use the Licensed Material for any illegal, unauthorized or other improper purposes.
    2. Rate Limits. You will not attempt to exceed or circumvent limitations on access, calls and use of the Twitter API (“Rate Limits”), or otherwise use the Twitter API in a manner that exceeds reasonable request volume, constitutes excessive or abusive usage, or otherwise fails to comply or is inconsistent with any part of this Agreement. If you exceed or Twitter reasonably believes that you have attempted to circumvent Rate Limits, controls to limit use of the Twitter APIs or the terms and conditions of this Agreement, then your ability to use the Licensed Materials may be temporarily suspended or permanently blocked. Twitter may monitor your use of the Twitter API to improve the Twitter Service and to ensure your compliance with this Agreement.
    3. Geographic Data. Your license to use Content in this Agreement does not allow you to (and you will not allow others to) aggregate, cache, or store location data and other geographic information contained in the Content, except in conjunction with a Tweet to which it is attached. Your license only allows you to use such location data and geographic information to identify the location tagged by the Tweet. Any use of location data or geographic information on a standalone basis or beyond the license granted herein is a breach of this Agreement.
    4. Use of Twitter Marks. The Twitter Marks may not be included in or as part of your registered corporate name, any of your logos, or any of your service or product names. Moreover, you may not create any derivative works of the Twitter Marks or use the Twitter Marks in a manner that creates or reasonably implies an inaccurate sense of endorsement, sponsorship, or association with Twitter. You will not otherwise use business names and/or logos in a manner that can mislead, confuse, or deceive users of your Services. All use of the Twitter Marks and all goodwill arising out of such use, will inure to Twitter’s benefit. You shall not use the Twitter Marks except as expressly authorized herein without Twitter’s prior consent. You will not remove or alter any proprietary notices or Twitter Marks on the Licensed Material.

    III. Updates

    You acknowledge that Twitter may update or modify the Twitter APIs from time to time, and at its sole discretion (in each instance, an “Update”). You are required to implement and use the most current version of the Twitter API and to make any changes to your Services that are required as a result of such Update, at your sole cost and expense. Updates may adversely affect the manner in which your Services access or communicate with the Twitter API or display Content. Your continued access or use of the Twitter APIs following an update or modification will constitute binding acceptance of the Update.

    IV. Ownership and Feedback

    1. Ownership. The Licensed Materials are licensed, not sold, and Twitter retains and reserves all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement. You expressly acknowledge that Twitter, its licensors and its end users retain all worldwide right, title and interest in and to the Licensed Material and Content, including all rights in patents, trademarks, trade names, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how, data (including all applications therefor), and all proprietary rights under the laws of the United States, any other jurisdiction or any treaty (“IP Rights”). You agree not to do anything inconsistent with such ownership, including without limitation, challenging Twitter’s ownership of the Twitter Marks, challenging the validity of the licenses granted herein, or otherwise copying or exploiting the Twitter Marks during or after the termination of this Agreement, except as specifically authorized herein. If you acquire any rights in the Twitter Marks or any confusingly similar marks, by operation of law or otherwise, you will, at no expense to Twitter, immediately assign such rights to Twitter.
    2. Feedback. You may provide Twitter with comments concerning the Licensed Material, Services or your evaluation and use thereof (collectively, “Feedback”). You hereby grant Twitter all rights, title and ownership of such Feedback (including all intellectual property rights therein), and Twitter may use the Feedback for any and all commercial and non-commercial purposes with no obligation of any kind to you.

     

    V. Termination

    Twitter may immediately terminate or suspend this Agreement, any rights granted herein, and/or your license to the Licensed Materials, at its sole discretion at any time, for any reason by providing notice to you. You may terminate this Agreement at any time by ceasing your access to the Twitter API and use of all Twitter Content. Upon termination of this Agreement, all licenses granted herein immediately expire and you must cease use of all Licensed Materials. The parties to this Agreement will not be liable to each other for any damages resulting solely from termination of this Agreement as permitted under this Agreement. Sections II, IV, V, VI and VII of this Agreement will survive the termination of this Agreement.

    VI. Confidentiality

    You may be given access to certain non-public information, software, and specifications relating to the Licensed Material (“Confidential Information”), which is confidential and proprietary to Twitter. You may use this Confidential Information only as necessary in exercising your rights granted in this Agreement. You may not disclose any of this Confidential Information to any third party without Twitter’s prior written consent. You agree that you will protect this Confidential Information from unauthorized use, access, or disclosure in the same manner that you would use to protect your own confidential and proprietary information of a similar nature and in no event with less than a reasonable degree of care.

    VII. Other Important Terms

    1. User Protection. You will not knowingly: 1) allow or assist any government entities, law enforcement, or other organizations to conduct surveillance on Content or obtain information on Twitter’s users or their Tweets that would require a subpoena, court order, or other valid legal process, or that would otherwise have the potential to be inconsistent with our users’ reasonable expectations of privacy; and 2) display, distribute or otherwise make available Content to any person or entity that you reasonably believe will use such data to violate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (located at http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/), including without limitation Articles 12, 18, or 19. Any law enforcement personnel seeking information about Twitter users will be referred to Twitter’s Guidelines for Law Enforcement located at https://t.co/le. You will not conduct and your Services will not provide analyses or research that isolates a small group of individuals or any single individual for any unlawful or discriminatory purposes. Exemptions to these restrictions may be requested for exigent circumstances and are subject to prior written approval from Twitter.
    2. Government Use. The Twitter API and Twitter Content are “commercial items” as that term is defined at 48 C.F.R. 2.101, consisting of “commercial computer software” and “commercial computer software documentation” as such terms are used in 48 C.F.R. 12.212. Any use, modification, derivative, reproduction, release, performance, display, disclosure or distribution of the Twitter API or Twitter Content by any government entity is prohibited, except as expressly permitted by the terms of this Agreement. Additionally, any use by U.S. government entities must be in accordance with 48 C.F.R. 12.212 and 48 C.F.R. 227.7202-1 through 227.7202-4. If you use the Twitter API or Twitter Content in your official capacity as an employee or representative of a U.S., state or local government entity and you are legally unable to accept the indemnity, jurisdiction, venue or other clauses herein, then those clauses do not apply to such entity, but only to the extent as required by applicable law. For the purpose of this provision, contractor/manufacturer is Twitter, Inc., 1355 Market Street, Suite 900, San Francisco, California 94103.
    3. Compliance with Laws; Export and Import. Each party will comply with all applicable foreign, federal, state, and local laws, rules and regulations. The Licensed Material is subject to U.S. export laws and may be subject to import and use laws of the country where it is delivered or used. You agree to abide by these laws. Under these laws, the Licensed Material may not be sold, leased, downloaded, moved, exported, re-exported, or transferred across borders without a license, or approval from the relevant government authority, to any country or to any foreign national restricted by these laws, including countries embargoed by the U.S. Government (currently Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Northern Sudan and Syria); or to any restricted or denied end-user including, but not limited to, any person or entity prohibited by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control; or for any restricted end-use. You will maintain throughout the Term all rights and licenses that are required with respect to your Services.
    4. Warranty Disclaimer. THE LICENSED MATERIAL IS PROVIDED TO YOU “AS IS”, “WHERE IS”, WITH ALL FAULTS AND EACH PARTY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY, OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND ANY WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS ARISING OUT OF THIS AGREEMENT, COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE. TWITTER DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE LICENSED MATERIAL OR ANY OTHER TWITTER PRODUCT OR SERVICE PROVIDED HEREUNDER WILL MEET ANY OF YOUR REQUIREMENTS OR THAT USE OF SUCH LICENSED MATERIAL OR OTHER PRODUCTS OR SERVICES WILL BE ERROR-FREE, UNINTERRUPTED, VIRUS-FREE OR SECURE. THIS DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY MAY NOT BE VALID IN SOME JURISDICTIONS AND YOU MAY HAVE WARRANTY RIGHTS UNDER LAW WHICH MAY NOT BE WAIVED OR DISCLAIMED. ANY SUCH WARRANTY EXTENDS ONLY FOR THIRTY (30) DAYS FROM THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF THIS AGREEMENT (UNLESS SUCH LAW PROVIDES OTHERWISE).
    5. Indemnification. You shall defend Twitter against any and all actions, demands, claims and suits (including without limitation product liability claims), and indemnify and hold Twitter harmless from any and all liabilities, damages and costs (including without limitation reasonable attorneys’ fees) to the extent arising out of: (i) your use of the Licensed Material in any manner that is inconsistent with this Agreement; or (ii) the performance, promotion, sale or distribution of your Services. In the event Twitter seeks indemnification or defense from you under this provision, Twitter will promptly notify you in writing of the claim(s) brought against Twitter for which it seeks indemnification or defense. Twitter reserves the right, at its option and sole discretion, to assume full control of the defense of claims with legal counsel of its choice. You may not enter into any third party agreement, which would, in any manner whatsoever, affect the rights of Twitter, constitute an admission of fault by Twitter or bind Twitter in any manner, without the prior written consent of Twitter. In the event Twitter assumes control of the defense of such claim, Twitter shall not settle any such claim requiring payment from you without your prior written approval.
    6. Limitation of Liability. IN NO EVENT WILL TWITTER BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY END USERS FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY, PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY LOSS OF OR DAMAGE TO USE, DATA, BUSINESS, GOODWILL OR PROFITS ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT. IN ANY CASE, TWITTER’S AGGREGATE LIABILITY FOR ANY AND ALL CLAIMS UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT EXCEED $50.00 USD. THE FOREGOING LIMITATIONS, EXCLUSIONS AND DISCLAIMERS SHALL APPLY REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH LIABILITY ARISES FROM ANY CLAIM BASED UPON CONTRACT, WARRANTY, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, AND WHETHER OR NOT THE PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSS OR DAMAGE. INSOFAR AS APPLICABLE LAW PROHIBITS ANY LIMITATION ON LIABILITY HEREIN, THE PARTIES AGREE THAT SUCH LIMITATION WILL BE AUTOMATICALLY MODIFIED, BUT ONLY TO THE EXTENT SO AS TO MAKE THE LIMITATION COMPLIANT WITH APPLICABLE LAW. THE PARTIES AGREE THAT THE LIMITATIONS ON LIABILITIES SET FORTH HEREIN ARE AGREED ALLOCATIONS OF RISK AND SUCH LIMITATIONS WILL APPLY NOTWITHSTANDING THE FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY.
    7. Updates. Twitter may update or modify this Agreement, Developer Terms, and other terms and conditions, from time to time at its sole discretion by posting the changes on this site or by otherwise notifying you (such notice may be via email). You acknowledge that these updates and modifications may adversely affect how your Service accesses or communicates with the Twitter API. If any change is unacceptable to you, your only recourse is to cease all use of the Licensed Material. Your continued access or use of the Licensed Material will constitute binding acceptance of the such updates and modifications.
    8. Miscellaneous. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement among the parties with respect to the subject matter and supersedes and merges all prior proposals, understandings and contemporaneous communications. Any modification to this Agreement must be in a writing signed by both you and Twitter, Inc. You may not assign any of the rights or obligations granted hereunder, in whole or in part, whether voluntarily or by operation of law, contract, merger (whether you are the surviving or disappearing entity), stock or asset sale, consolidation, dissolution, through government action or otherwise, except with the prior written consent of Twitter, Inc. Twitter, Inc. is authorized to sign modifications and consents on behalf of Twitter International Company, an Irish company responsible for the information of Twitter users who live outside the United States. Any attempted assignment in violation of this paragraph is null and void, and Twitter may terminate this Agreement. This Agreement does not create or imply any partnership, agency or joint venture. This Agreement will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of California, without regard to or application of conflicts of law rules or principles. All claims arising out of or relating to this Agreement will be brought exclusively in the federal or state courts of San Francisco County, California, USA, and you consent to personal jurisdiction in those courts. Despite the foregoing, you agree that money damages would be an inadequate remedy for Twitter in the event of a breach or threatened breach of a provision of this Agreement protecting Twitter’s intellectual property or Confidential Information, and that in the event of such a breach or threat, Twitter, in addition to any other remedies to which it is entitled, is entitled to such preliminary or injunctive relief (including an order prohibiting Company from taking actions in breach of such provisions), without the need for posting bond, and specific performance as may be appropriate. The parties agree that neither the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, nor the Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act (UCITA) shall apply to this Agreement, regardless of the states in which the parties do business or are incorporated. No waiver by Twitter of any covenant or right under this Agreement will be effective unless memorialized in a writing duly authorized by Twitter. If any part of this Agreement is determined to be invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, that provision will be enforced to the maximum extent permissible and the remaining provisions of this Agreement will remain in full force and effect.


    Developer Policy

    Updated: April 17, 2015.

    Effective: May 18, 2015.

    In addition to the Developer Agreement, this Developer Policy (“Policy”) provides rules and guidelines for developers who interact with Twitter’s ecosystem of applications, services and content. Policy violations are also considered violations of the Developer Agreement. Take a look at the Definitions for the meaning of capitalized words used in this Policy.  These policies may be changed from time to time without notice. Please check here for any updates.

    1. Guiding Principles
      1. A Few Key Points
      2. Maintain the Integrity of Twitter’s Products
      3. Respect Users’ Control and Privacy
      4. Clearly Identify Your Service
      5. Keep Twitter Spam Free
      6. Be a Good Partner to Twitter
      7. Avoid Replicating the Core Twitter Experience
      8. Engage in Appropriate Commercial Use
    2. Rules for Specific Twitter Products or Features
      1. Twitter Login
      2. Social Updates
      3. Twitter Identity
      4. Twitter Cards
      5. Twitter for Websites
      6. Definitions

      I. Guiding Principles

      1. A Few Key Points

      1. Keep any API keys or other access credentials private and use only as permitted.
      2. Respect our requirements on how to display and interact with users’ content.
      3. If your application will need more than 1 million user tokens, you must contact us about your Twitter API access, as you may be subject to additional terms.
      4. Twitter may monitor your use of the Twitter API to improve the Twitter Service, examine commercial use and ensure your compliance with this Policy.
      5. Remember, Twitter may suspend or revoke access to the Twitter API if we believe you are in violation of this Policy. Do not apply for or register additional API tokens if Twitter has suspended your account.  Instead, contact us.

      2. Maintain the Integrity of Twitter’s Products

      1. Follow the Display Requirements and Twitter Rules. If your Service facilitates or induces users to violate the Twitter Rules, you must figure out how to prevent the abuse or Twitter may suspend or terminate your access to the Twitter API. We’ve provided guidance in our Abuse Prevention and Security help page.
      2. If your Service submits content to Twitter that includes a Twitter username, submit the correct Twitter username (“@username”).
      3. Promptly respond to Content changes reported through the Twitter API, such as deletions or the public/protected status of Tweets.
      4. Do not modify, translate or delete a portion of the Content.
      5. Maintain the features and functionality of Content and Twitter API. Do not interfere with, intercept, disrupt, filter, or disable any features of Twitter or the Twitter API, including the Content of embedded Tweets and embedded timelines.
      6. Only surface Twitter activity as it surfaced on Twitter. For example, your Service should execute the unfavorite and delete actions by removing all relevant Content, not by publicly displaying to other users that the Tweet is no longer favorited or has been deleted.
      7. Do not exceed or circumvent limitations on access, calls, sharing, privacy settings, or use permitted in this Policy, or as otherwise set forth on the Developer Site, or communicated to you by Twitter.
      8. Do not remove or alter any proprietary notices or marks on Content or the Twitter API.
      9. Do not (and do not allow others to) aggregate, cache, or store location data and other geographic information contained in the Content, except as part of a Tweet. Any use of location data or geographic information on a standalone basis is prohibited.

      3. Respect Users’ Control and Privacy

      1. Get the user’s express consent before you do any of the following:
        1. Take any actions on a user’s behalf, including posting Content, following/unfollowing other users, modifying profile information, or adding hashtags or other data to the user’s Tweets. A user authenticating through your Service does not constitute user consent.
        2. Republish Content accessed by means other than via the Twitter API or Twitter other tools.
        3. Use a user’s Content to promote a commercial product or service, either on a commercial durable good or as part of an advertisement.
        4. Store non-public Content such as direct messages or other private or confidential information.
        5. Share or publish protected Content, private or confidential information.
      2. Take all reasonable efforts to do the following, provided that when requested by Twitter, you must promptly take such actions:
        1. Delete Content that Twitter reports as deleted or expired;
        2. Change treatment of Content that Twitter reports is subject to changed sharing options (e.g., become protected); and
        3. Modify Content that Twitter reports has been modified.
      3. If your Service allows users to post Content to Twitter, then, before publishing, show the user exactly what will be published, including whether any geotags will be added to the Content.
      4. If your Service allows users to post Content to your Service and Twitter, then, before publishing to the Service:
        1. Explain how you will use the Content;
        2. Obtain proper permission to use the Content; and
        3. Continue to use such Content in accordance with this Policy in connection with the Content.
      5. Display your Service’s privacy policy to users before download, installation or sign up of your application. Your privacy policy must be consistent with all applicable laws, and be no less protective of end users than Twitter’s Privacy Policy located at http://twitter.com/privacy. You must comply with your privacy policy, which must clearly disclose the information you collect from users and how you use and share that information, including with Twitter.
      6. If your Service uses cookies, disclose in your privacy policy:
        1. Whether third parties collect user information on your Service and across other websites or online services;
        2. Information about user options for cookie management and whether you honor the Do Not Track setting in supporting web browsers.
      7. If your Service adds location information to users’ Tweets:
        1. Disclose when you add location information, whether as a geotag or annotations data, and whether you add a place or specific coordinates.
        2. Comply with Geo Developers Guidelines if your application allows users to Tweet with their location.
      8. Do not store Twitter passwords.

      4. Clearly Identify Your Service

      1. Make sure users understand your identity and the source and purpose of your Service. For example:
        1. Don’t use a name or logo that falsely implies you or your company is related to another business or person.
        2. Don’t use a shortened URL for your Service that attempts to mask the destination site
        3. Don’t use a URL for your Service that directs users to
          1. a site that is unrelated to your Service
          2. a site that encourages users to violate the Twitter Rules
          3. a spam or malware site.
      2. Do not replicate, frame, or mirror the Twitter website or its design.

      5. Keep Twitter Spam Free

      1. Follow the Abuse and Spam rules here.
      2. Comply with the automation rules if your Service performs automatic actions.
      3. Do not do any of the following:
        1. Mass-register applications.
        2. Create tokens/applications to sell names, prevent others from using names, or other commercial use.
        3. Use third-party content feeds to update and maintain accounts under those third parties’ names.
        4. Name squat by submitting multiple applications with the same function under different names.
        5. Publish links to malicious content.
        6. Publish pornographic or obscene images to user profile images and background images.

      6. Be a Good Partner to Twitter

      1. Follow the guidelines for using Tweets in broadcast if you display Tweets offline.
      2. If you provide Content to third parties, including downloadable datasets of Content or an API that returns Content, you will only distribute or allow download of Tweet IDs and/or User IDs.
        1. You may, however, provide export via non-automated means (e.g., download of spreadsheets or PDF files, or use of a “save as” button) of up to 50,000 public Tweets and/or User Objects per user of your Service, per day.
        2. Any Content provided to third parties via non-automated file download remains subject to this Policy.
      3. Use and display Twitter Marks solely to identify Twitter as the source of Content.
      4. Comply with Twitter Brand Assets and Guidelines.
      5. Do not do any of the following:
        1. Use a single application API key for multiple use cases or multiple application API keys for the same use case.
        2. Charge a premium above your Service’s standard data and usage rates for access to Content via SMS or USSD.
        3. Sell or receive monetary or virtual compensation for Tweet actions or the placement of Tweet actions on your Service, such as, but not limited to follow, retweet, favorite, and reply.
        4. Do not use, access or analyze the Twitter API to monitor or measure the availability, performance, functionality, usage statistics or results of Twitter’s products and services or for any other benchmarking or competitive purposes, including without limitation, monitoring or measuring:
          1. the responsiveness of Twitter websites, web pages or other online services; or
          2. aggregate Twitter user metrics such as total number of active users, accounts, user engagements or account engagements.
        5. Use Twitter Content, by itself or bundled with third party data, to target users with advertising outside of the Twitter platform, including without limitation on other advertising networks, via data brokers, or through any other advertising or monetization services.
        6. Use Twitter Marks, or Twitter Certified Products Program badges, or similar marks or names in a manner that creates a false sense of endorsement, sponsorship, or association with Twitter.
        7. Use the Twitter Verified Account badge, Verified Account status, or any other enhanced user categorization on Twitter Content other than that reported to you by Twitter through the API.

      7. Avoid Replicating the Core Twitter Experience

      1. Twitter discourages online services from replicating Twitter’s core user experience or features.
      2. The following rules apply solely to Services or applications that attempt to replicate Twitter’s core user experience:
        1. You must obtain our permission to have more than 100,000 user tokens, and you may be subject to additional terms.
        2. Use the Twitter API as provided by Twitter for functionalities in your Service that are substantially similar to a Twitter service feature and present this to your users as the default option.
        3. Display a prominent link or button in your Service that directs new users to Twitter’s sign-up functionality.
        4. Do not do the following:
          1. Pay, or offer to pay, third parties for distribution. This includes offering compensation for downloads (other than transactional fees) or other mechanisms of traffic acquisition.
          2. Arrange for your Service to be pre-installed on any device, promoted as a “zero-rated” service, or marketed as part of a specialized data plan.
          3. Use Twitter Content or other data collected from users to create or maintain a separate status update or social network database or service.

      8. Engage in Appropriate Commercial Use

      1. Advertising Around Twitter Content
        1. You may advertise around and on sites that display Tweets, but you may not place any advertisements within the Twitter timeline on your Service other than Twitter Ads.
        2. Your advertisements cannot resemble or reasonably be confused by users as a Tweet.
        3. You may advertise in close proximity to the Twitter timeline (e.g., banner ads above or below timeline), but there must be a clear separation between Twitter content and your advertisements.
      2. Compensation
        1. When Content is the primary basis of an advertising or sponsorship sale you make, you must compensate Twitter, recoupable against any fees payment to Twitter for data licensing.
        2. Twitter reserves the right to serve advertising via its APIs (“Twitter Ads”). If you decide to serve Twitter Ads once we start delivering them, we will share a portion of advertising revenue with you in accordance with the relevant terms and conditions.

      II. Rules for Specific Twitter Products or Features

      1. Twitter Login

      1. Present users with easy to find options to log into and out of Twitter, for example, via the OAuth protocol or Twitter Kit.
      2. Provide users without a Twitter account the opportunity to create a new Twitter account.
      3. Display the Connect with Twitter option at least as prominently as the most prominent of any other third party social networking sign-up or sign-in marks and branding appearing on your Service.
      4. Obtain consent before accessing users’ email addresses using Twitter login. As part of Twitter’s OAuth protocol, users may consent to share their email addresses with you. On iOS and Android, you must only request access to users’ email addresses using the Twitter-approved user interface made available via Twitter Kit and must only access email addresses of users who provide consent through that user interface.

      2. Social Updates

      1. If you allow users to create social updates from your own social service or a third party social networking, micro-blogging, or status update provider integrated into your Service (“Update”), you must display a prominent option to publish that content to Twitter.
      2. If Updates are longer than 140 characters or not text, you must display a prominent link to publish that content to Twitter and:
        1. URLs must direct users to the page where that content is displayed. You may require users to sign in to access that page, but the content must not otherwise be restricted from being viewed.
        2. URLs must not direct users to interstitial or intermediate pages.

      3. Twitter Identity

      1. Once a user has authenticated via Connect with Twitter via your Service, you must clearly display the user’s Twitter identity via your Service. Twitter identity includes visible display of the user’s avatar, Twitter user name and the Twitter bird mark.
      2. Displays of the user’s followers on your Service must clearly show that the relationship is associated with the Twitter Service.

      4. Twitter Cards

      1. Develop your Card to have the same quality experience across all platforms where Cards are displayed.
      2. If your Service provides a logged-in experience, the experience prior to a user’s login must be of equivalent quality and user value.
      3. Mark your Card as ‘true’ for sensitive media if such media can be displayed.
      4. Use HTTPS for hosting all assets within your Card.
      5. For video and audio content:
        1. Default to ‘sound off’ for videos that automatically play content.
        2. Include stop or pause controls.
      6. Do not do any of the following:
        1. Exceed or circumvent Twitter’s limitations placed on any Cards, including the Card’s intended use.
        2. Attach the App Card to a user’s Tweet, unless the user is explicitly promoting or referring to the app in the Tweet.
        3. Place third-party sponsored content within Cards without Twitter’s prior approval.
        4. Include content or actions within your Card that are not contextually relevant to the user’s Tweet text and Tweet entities, such as URLs and media.
        5. Generate active mixed content browser warnings.
        6. Attach monetary incentives or transactions (including virtual currency) to activities that occur within the Card or on Twitter from your Card.
        7. Apply for Cards access for domains you do not manage to prevent others from registering or utilizing Cards on those domains.

      5. Twitter for Websites

      1. If you expect your embedded Tweets and embedded timelines to exceed 10 million daily impressions, you must contact us about your Twitter API access, as you may be subject to additional terms.
      2. If you use TFW widgets, you must ensure that an end user is provided with clear and comprehensive information about, and consents to, the storing and accessing of cookies or other information on the end user’s device where providing such information and obtaining such consent is required by law.
      3. If you operate a Service targeted to children under 13, you must opt out of tailoring Twitter in any Twitter for Websites button, embedded Tweet, or embedded timeline on your Service by setting the opt-out parameter to be true.

      6. Definitions

      1. Content ‒ Tweets, Tweet IDs, Twitter end user profile information, and any other data and information made available to you through the Twitter API or by any other means authorized by Twitter, and any copies and derivative works thereof.
      2. Developer Site ‒ Twitter’s developer site located at https://dev.twitter.com.
      3. Tweet ‒ A public posting with a text body of no more than 140 characters made by any end user of the Twitter Service.
      4. Tweet ID ‒ A unique identification number generated for each Tweet.
      5. Twitter API ‒ The Twitter Application Programming Interface (“API”) and the related documentation, data, code, and other materials provided by Twitter with the API, as updated from time to time, including without limitation through the Developer Site.
      6. Twitter Marks ‒ The Twitter name, or logos that Twitter makes available to you, including via the Developer Site.
      7. User ID — Unique identification numbers generated for each User that do not contain any personally identifiable information such as Twitter usernames or users’ names.